What are the health benefits of walnuts?

Walnuts are round, single-seeded stone fruits that grow from the walnut tree. They are a good source of healthful fats, protein, and fiber. They may enhance heart and bone health and help in weight management, among other benefits.
Walnut trees are native to eastern North America but are now commonly grown in China, Iran, and within the United States in California and Arizona.

Beneath the husk of the walnut fruit is a wrinkly, globe-shaped nut. The walnut is split into two flat segments to be sold commercially.

Walnuts are available both raw or roasted, and salted or unsalted.

This article provides a nutritional breakdown of walnuts, a look at its possible health benefits, how to incorporate more walnuts into the diet and any potential health risks of consuming walnuts.

Nutritional breakdown
walnuts
Walnuts may offer benefits for bone and heart health.
According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database, 1 cup of unbranded, organic walnuts (30 grams) contains:

Energy: 200 calories
Carbohydrate 3.89 grams (g)
Sugar: 1 g
Fiber: 2 g
Protein: 5 g
Fat: 20 g
Calcium: 20 milligrams (mg)
Iron: 0.72 mg
Sodium: 0 mg
Walnuts are also a good source of:

manganese
copper
magnesium
phosphorus
vitamin B6
iron
They are high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and omega-3 fatty acids. They are also a good source of protein.

Nuts have a reputation for being a high-calorie and high-fat food. However, they are dense in nutrients and provide heart-healthy fats.

The combination of healthy fats, protein, and fiber in walnuts helps to increase satisfaction and fullness. This makes them more healthful as a snack, compared with chips, crackers, and other simple carbohydrate foods.

Health benefits
Consuming plant-based foods of all kinds has long been associated with a reduced risk of many lifestyle-related health conditions.

The possible health benefits of walnuts may include boosting the cardiovascular system and bone health, reducing the risk of gallbladder disease, and treating epilepsy.

Heart health
Walnuts may boost heart health.
Walnuts may boost heart health.
The monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids found in walnuts have been shown to decrease LDL (harmful) cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

This, in turn, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and heart attack.

A study published in the British Journal of Nutrition showed that the risk of coronary heart disease is 37 percent lower for those consuming nuts more than four times per week, compared to those who never or rarely consumed nuts.

In 2013, scientists published findings of a small study which indicated that:

walnut oil can benefit endothelial function
whole walnuts can enhance the process of eliminating «bad» LDL cholesterol
Results of a meta-analysis published in 2009 suggested that a diet that is high in walnuts is linked to improved lipid and cholesterol profiles. The researchers also concluded that walnuts may also help reduce oxidative stress and inflammation.

In 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the claim for food labels on a variety of nuts, including walnuts, that:

«Eating 1.5 ounces per day of most nuts as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease.»

FDA
However, they note that while scientific evidence suggests that this is true, it does not prove it. The statement also refers to whole or chopped nuts, and not products that contain nuts.

Weight management
According to research published in the Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, routine nut consumption is associated with higher levels of energy use while resting.

In trials that compared weight loss using diets that include or exclude nuts, the diets that included nuts in moderation showed greater weight loss.

A study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition also found that women who reported rarely eating nuts had a greater incidence of weight gain over an 8-year period than those who consumed nuts two times a week or more.

Gallstone disease
According to another study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, frequent nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cholecystectomy, an operation to remove the gallbladder.

In over a million people documented over 20 years, women who consumed more than 5 ounces of nuts a week had a significantly lower risk of cholecystectomy than women who ate less than 1 ounce of nuts each week.

Bone health
Walnuts are a good source of the mineral copper. Severe copper deficiency is associated with lower bone mineral density and an increased risk of osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis is a condition where bones become thinner and less dense, making them easier to fracture and break.

More research is needed on the effects of marginal copper deficiency and on the potential benefits of copper supplements to prevent and manage osteoporosis.

Copper also plays an important role in the maintenance of collagen and elastin, major structural components of the body.

Without sufficient copper, the body cannot replace damaged connective tissue or the collagen that makes up the building blocks for bone. This can lead to a range of issues including joint dysfunction.

Walnuts contain a high amount of manganese. Manganese has been shown to prevent osteoporosis in combination with the minerals calcium and copper.

Magnesium, another mineral in walnuts, is important for bone formation as it helps with the absorption of calcium into the bone.

While manganese and copper supplements may provide quantities of minerals that can be harmful, getting these minerals through the diet is thought to be good for bone health. Acquista le noci